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High Voltage Cables

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Cable losses can be divided as current dependent and voltage dependent. Voltage dependent losses arise in the di-electric due to change of polarity in the alternating field which di-electric losses. Di-electric loss per unit length in each phase is given by: Wd=w C U2o tan (W/m) Current dependent cable losses comprise of the following: * Ohmic conductor losses * Losses due to skin effect * Losses due to proximity effect * Losses in metallic sheath Ohmic conductor losses: These are dependent on the material and temperature and are calculated as follows: Wc = 12R (W/m) where: R is the a.c resistance of conductor at operating temperature and calculated as R = R2 ( [1 a(t-20)] a = 0.00393 for Copper, a = 0.00403 for Aluminium, t = temperature in ?C Losses due to skin effect: These are caused by the displacement of the current into the outer areas of the conductor and increase approximately with the square of the frequency. These can be reduced by special conductor constructions (segmental conductors). The losses can make up to 8 to 17% of the ohmic losses of the conductor for cross-sections between 500 mm2 to 2000 mm2. Losses due to proximity effect: These are caused by parallel conductors laid close together Le., by magenetic fields. If the cables are laid far apart, the effect can be reduced to 10% of the ohmic conductor losses even for large conductor cross-sections. Sheath Losses: Power loss in sheath or screen are caused by eddy currents and induced sheath current Eddy current losses are produced in all metal parts adjacent to the conductor especially in presence of large conductor currents. Induced sheath current: Because the metal sheath of a single core cable is linked much more closely to the alternating magenetic field of its own conductor than to the altrernating current field of the other two phase conductors, the result is an induced voltage along the length of the cable. This amounts to approx


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