Monolithic multilayer actuators function is based on the piezoelectric effect. A piezoceramic
material expands in the direction of the electrical field when a voltage is applied to it.
The field strengths required to produce this phenomenon are approx. 2000 V/mm. Our actuators
are produced using a specially developed stacking and sintering technology from layers of
ceramic material about 0.1 mm thick. Therefore, a fairly low voltage can achieve maximum