A microcontroller unit or MCU is a computer-on-a-chip used to control electronic devices. It is a type of microprocessor emphasizing self-sufficiency and cost-effectiveness, in contrast to a general-purpose microprocessor. A typical microcontroller contains all the memory and interfaces needed for a simple application, whereas a general purpose microprocessor requires additional chips to provide these functions.
A microcontroller is a single integrated circuit with the key features: CPU, input/output interfaces, peripherals, RAM, ROM, EEPROM or flash memory, clock generator and resonator or RC circuit. This integration drastically reduces the number of chips and the amount of wiring and PCB space that would be needed to produce equivalent systems using separate chips.
Possible to reduce turn-around-time(TAT) in development
Cost effective in development and management
Possible to reprogram in the fields