System-on-a-chip or SoC is an idea of integrating all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions - all on one chip. A typical application is in the area of embedded systems. If it is not feasible to construct an SoC for a particular application, an alternative is a system in package (SiP) comprising a number of chips in a single package.
A typical SoC consists of microcontroller, microprocessor or DSP core memory blocks etc. These blocks are connected by either a proprietary or industry-standard bus. DMA controllers route data directly between external interfaces and memory, by-passing the processor core and thereby increasing the data throughput of the SoC.