The natural extracts of spices produced by extraction using liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) of the food class, are substitutes of dry spices for manufacture of canned products.
CO2-extracts have aroma and taste of initial raw materials. They give a product the basic bioactive properties. They are natural preservatives. They contain a group of antioxidants, phytoncids, ferments and other active and accompanying substances.
When manufacturing canned products, various methods of introducing CO2-extracts in a product are applied: with fat, vegetable oil, 80 per cent-acetic acid, salt or as emulsion in embedding liquids. Deposition on salt, sugar, starch and on other loose components is very simple, fast, and these materials after deposition of CO2-extracts also remain loose "measurers", convenient for use. In particular, together with salt, CO2-extracts are uniformly distributed in marinades, pastes, embedding liquids, sauces, etc.
1. For vegetable, meat-and-vegetable canned food and salads, CO2-extracts are added as follows:
• The amount of CO2-extracts calculated according to the formula for a certain portion of the canned food, is to be dissolved in the correspondent amount of the melted fat, vegetable oil or 80 per cent-acetic acid, carefully mixed and the received mixture is to be dosed into every can.
2. For canned food of fried vegetables, CO2-extracts are added with salt as follows:
• The amount of CO2-extracts calculated according to the formula, is to be deposited on a small amount of salt (the salt - CO2-extracts ratio is equal to 100:1) and carefully mixed. The received mixture of salt with CO2-extracts (dry by touch), is to be mixed with the remain amount of salt needed according to the formula and to be dosed in the produced food. A heightened humidity of the salt promotes formation of lumps and non-uniform distribution of CO2-extracts in the mixture.
3. For fruit and vegetable marinades, canned cucumbers, tomatoes, squashes and marrows, CO2-extracts are introduced with an embedding liquid as emulsion:
• In order to receive a stable emulsion, one should prepare it based on liquids which temperature in mixing containers must not exceed 60-70°Ñ.
The dosage of CO2-extracts is implemented by volume. A necessary volume of the CO2-extracts is determined by division of CO2-extracts mass into density.
The recommended replacement rates of one kg of a spices with CO2-extracts of the same name in grams when manufacturing canning products, are given in Table 1. Here minimum and maximum replacement rates are specified, as the filling amount of spices depends on the formula. Depending on a desirable poignancy of a product, the rates of the fillings are closer either to the bottom (minimum) boundary, or to the top (maximum) boundary. Here, in Table 1, for Blend N4, not replacement rates of 1 kg of dry raw materials are specified but an approximate (average) filling of the integrated aromatiser ¹4 Blend N4 regarding 1 ton of the products.
Table 2 shows a consumption rates of CO2-extracts regarding 1000 kg of finished products (pickled vegetables together with an embedding liquid), and it is seen that when filling more keen and bitter spices regarding 1 ton, one can consume 42.0 g, and when using less keen and more delicate aromas (leaves of celery, dill, horse-radish, etc., according to the formula, 26.0 g of CO2-extracts is needed.