The function of an Attenuator is to reduce the amplitude level without substantially distorting its waveform in the processing of a microwave signal. It contains a lossy element along the direction of the electromagnetic field vector, in order to disperse the energy. This article describes how to design a Digital Attenuator to convert a signal to a desired amplitude level via an electronic command.
The theory of operation is to reduce the known source of power by a predetermined decibel factor. To measure the amount of attenuation necessary, the logarithm of power ratio is utilized.