A chopper drive allows a stepper motor to maintain greater torque or force at higher speeds than with an L/R drive. The chopper drive is a constant current drive and is almost always the bipolar type. The chopper gets its name from the technique of rapidly turning the output voltage on and off (chopping) to control motor current. For this setup, low impedance motor coils and the maximum voltage power supply that can be used with the drive will deliver the best performance. As a general rule, to achieve optimum performance, the recommended ratio between power supply voltage and rated motor voltage should be at least eight to one. Unless stated otherwise an eight to one ratio was used for the performance curves in this catalog.