Some infants are born with diseases called congenital abnormalities and these abnormalities are present in infant right from the birth. Congenital diseases basically are result of lack of nutrients and other problems affecting during the gestation period. During the development of baby, mother incurs some infections and complications which might affect fetus in the womb resulting congenital disease.
It has also been reported that congenital disease are incurred due to heredity and if the problem is prevailing in the family then the next generation has more chances of getting congenital disease. Read out types of congenital abnormalities which could be found in new infants.
Spina bifida is one of the birth defects that could be found in infants that involves incomplete development of the spinal cord. This abnormality occurs during the first month of pregnancy when the spine of the embryo fails to join leaving an open space. There are types of severity in spina bifida i.e. Spina bifida occulta and Spina bifida manifesta.
Different causes of spina bifida have been highlighted such as high fevers during pregnancy and some drugs taken during pregnancy also lead to spina bifida in children. Children with this abnormality may suffers from problems of bowel and bladder control, other diseases like ADHD, inability in learning and hand-eye coordination problems. Children with spina bifida develop some paralysis and degree of paralysis largely depends on where the opening occurs in spine. If the opening in the spine is high, chances of paralysis are more severe.
Certain prenatal tests may help parents to find out if would be child is suffering from spina bifida or not. The symptoms of spina bifida may have no outward signs except some of birthmark like dimple or patch of hair present over the lower spine. The treatment involves operation during infancy which might treat the disease.
Umbilical hernia is another congenital problem in which there is an outward bulging protrusion of the abdominal lining through the area around navel. Though it doesn’t create problem but could be associated with rare conditions like down disease, and beckwith-widemann syndrome. The protruding belly occurs commonly in infants when the muscle through which blood vessels pass in order to feed fetus doesn’t close completely.
In some cases this problem needed no treatment but in some cases there is a need of operation or surgery when the bowel or other tissue protrude out and lose blood supply.
Sickle cell disorder
Sickle cell disorder is an abnormality which affects red blood cells containing abnormal type of hemoglobin. People suffering from sickle cell disease have abnormal type of hemoglobin present in their blood that becomes crescent shape obstruction the way when passing through small blood vessels. This sickle cell doesn’t live in the blood for more than 16 days and distorts, become stiff and could not pass through blood vessels.